Category Archives: Data

10 Feb

Where Statistics are Beautiful

Hans Rosling created a world where “statistics are beautiful” and data are entertaining. The staff at The DHS Program have always believed these things to be true but found it difficult to convince the masses. And then came Gapminder and the juggernaut of Hans Rosling’s charismatic, informative, and perspective-changing data presentations.

The DHS Program was heartbroken to learn of Hans Rosling’s death earlier this week. DHS has enjoyed a long and enthusiastic relationship with Dr. Rosling. In 2009, The DHS Program and USAID had the honor of welcoming Dr. Rosling as our keynote speaker at the DHS 25th anniversary celebration in Washington, DC. What is particularly striking in watching the video again after 8 years, is the laughter. Before Hans Rosling, no one would have believed that a data presentation could be so engaging and witty while being so insightful.

In addition to being entertaining and informative, Dr. Rosling was exceptionally modest and gracious. He came to the DHS 25th anniversary event at his own cost, and credited USAID and DHS data with his own success. He thanked USAID and the US taxpayers saying, “Nothing in my career would have been possible without DHS data.”

But really we, at The DHS Program, owe Hans Rosling a tremendous debt of gratitude. Dr. Rosling was a great advocate not just for DHS data, but for all data. He understood, better than anyone else, that data are worthless unless they are used. And he succeeded in doing what many of us have attempted and failed:  he made data come alive.  He used the data to expose the many incorrect notions about development that even people working in the field have, and he did it with such unique charm and flair. His presentations inspired people to think in different ways and to take action.

To Hans Rosling’s family, we thank you for sharing Hans with the world, and for so willingly joining his mission to “edutain” us. All of us at The DHS Program mourn the loss of this warm, generous visionary. This week, more than ever, we commit to continue the work that Hans has started, and will be inspired by Hans Rosling’s leadership and ingenuity as we look for new ways to provide the world with actionable, understandable data.

08 Feb

Update: Downloadable Citations for DHS Final Survey Reports Now Available

Is this how you look when you’re compiling your references?
via GIPHY
A recent DHS comparative report included references to 52 Demographic and Health Surveys.  You could spend hours entering bibliographic information, or you can download the citations directly into your reference software.

In 2015, The DHS Program announced the availability of downloadable citations for all DHS analytical reports.

And now, in 2017, we are pleased to announce that the reference information for ALL (more than 300 of them!) DHS, SPA, MIS, and AIS final survey reports are also available for download. As with the previous release, citation information can be downloaded in two ways:

-Individually on each publication page or

-As part of a full library of DHS Final survey reports:

Endnote capture

We’ve also provided some additional information on our recommended citation style, and how to achieve it in the various reference management software. Read more about downloadable citations and citation styles on our website.

25 Jan

A New DHS Questionnaire: Interviewing Fieldworkers

There’s a new survey in town. But it’s probably not what you expect. For 30 years, The DHS Program has trained thousands of fieldworkers to conduct over 300 surveys – but who are these fieldworkers? It is well documented that interviewers affect the quality of the data being collected, for example, in the areas of response rates and response validity. So what interviewer characteristics lead to the best data quality? Have fieldworkers worked on a DHS survey before? Are the fieldworkers similar to the respondents they are interviewing? Until now, answers to these and other questions have not been quantified.

fieldworker

© Blake Zachary, ICF

In 2014, The DHS Program piloted a fieldworker survey in Cambodia. Data were collected from all 114 fieldworkers. We collected information on their age, sex, marital status, religion, educational level, experience with other surveys, and languages spoken. Taken on their own, the survey results may not be all that interesting. About three–quarters of the fieldworkers had been educated beyond secondary school, almost half had been involved in a previous DHS survey, and about one-third had no children. But when these survey results are compared with DHS response rates and results, they may help to explain certain patterns.

Take, for example, the question of child mortality. Our new DHS fieldworker questionnaire asks if an interviewer has had a child who died. Is this interviewer more likely to collect accurate data on infant and child mortality? Or might she try to avoid the topic?

While all interviewers undergo intense training on the DHS questionnaires, the rapport between interviewer and interviewee is integral to data quality. Will survey respondents be more likely to refuse participation in the survey if the interviewer appears to be better educated or too young? Are unmarried interviewers sufficiently comfortable asking questions about sexual practices, family planning, and child birth? Are experienced interviewers better interviewers or are they too jaded to do a good job?

The pilot study in Cambodia proved that collecting information from interviewers was both feasible and potentially informative. Starting with the 2015 Zimbabwe DHS, the fieldworker questionnaire has been a standard part of the survey, and the dataset is released along with the traditional DHS survey dataset.Zimbabwe dataset

The potential research questions are endless. And now, with the first public release of the fieldworker survey dataset as part of the 2015 Zimbabwe DHS, analysts will be able to explore these data themselves.

11 Jan

Measuring the SDGs: The Role of Household Surveys

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have replaced the Millennium Development Goals with broad and lofty aspirations ranging from health, education, and gender equality to clean energy and responsible consumption.

Sustainable Development GoalsBehind each Sustainable Development Goal is a series of targets and each target can be measured by one or more indicators. Many of the targets in the areas of good health, zero hunger, no poverty, quality education, gender equality, clean water and sanitation, and reduced inequalities can be measured directly from DHS surveys. In fact, in many cases, this information has been collected as part of the DHS for decades, and indicator data already exist.

For example, the second SDG, “Zero Hunger,” is supported by 8 targets. One of these is: “By 2030, end all forms of malnutrition, including achieving, by 2025, the internationally agreed targets on stunting and wasting in children under 5 years of age, and address the nutritional needs of adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women and older persons” (Target 2.2).

Target 2.2 of SDGs

This is where DHS comes in. DHS surveys have measured the height and weight of children under 5 since the 1980s. These measurements are compared to international reference standards to calculate stunting and wasting.Trends in Stunting in South Asia

As DHS data in the STATcompiler show, 4 countries in South Asia have made progress in reducing stunting since the 1990s, but stunting in this region is still unacceptably high. Future surveys will assess whether or not they can achieve a 40% reduction (the international target) by 2025.

Similarly, the SDG for Good Health and Well Being includes a target on reducing childhood mortality: “By 2030, end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age, with all countries aiming to reduce neonatal mortality to at least as low as 12 per 1,000 live births and under-5 mortality to at least as low as 25 per 1,000 live births” (Target 3.2).

Childhood mortality data have been collected as a standard part of DHS surveys since 1985. While neonatal and under-five mortality have declined in many DHS countries, the target of 25 under-five deaths for every 1,000 live births is still a long way off for many. In Tanzania, for example, under-five mortality has dropped steadily since 1999 but is not yet near the international target.

Under-five mortality in East Africa

Other SDG-supporting indicators currently collected in DHS surveys include access to safe water and improved toilet facilities, early marriage, family planning demand satisfied, antenatal care coverage, and birth registration. Others are not part of the DHS standard questionnaire but are often collected in optional modules, such as the maternal mortality ratio, female genital cutting, and violence against women.

In addition, new questions were added to the DHS questionnaire at the beginning of DHS-7 (2013-2018). The data resulting from these questions are starting to appear in DHS final reports and respond to SDG indicators such as clean cooking fuel, tobacco use, internet access, bank accounts, and mobile telephone ownership. A new DHS module on accidents and injuries will respond to the SDG indicator on road traffic accidents. A full list of the DHS-related SDG indicators can be found on the SDGs page of the DHS website.

Demand for Family Planning videoBut as always, collecting data is not enough. The DHS Program is also working to make the DHS-related SDGs easier to find, interpret, and use. This past year we released a video tutorial on the complicated “Demand for Family Planning Satisfied” indicator, and worked with partner Blue RasterDemand for Family Planning video to create an SDGs Story Map.

In the coming year, you will see a standard SDGs table for the final reports, addition of an SDGs tag to facilitate location of SDGs in the STATcompiler, and expansion of the SDGs page on our website.

Stay tuned as we develop these tools. And in the meantime, we’ll be out in the field, collecting the data the world needs to monitor progress towards sustainable development.

16 Nov

From National to Local: A New Way to Leverage DHS Data

In DHS survey final reports, data are presented on a national or first-level administrative sub-national level. However, this is usually not the level at which program planning and decision making are truly happening. To support more decentralized decision making at lower administrative levels, data need to be presented on a more disaggregated level.

The DHS Program is producing a standard set of spatially modeled map surfaces for each population-based survey for a select list of indicators that provide smaller area estimates of data. Geostatistics are used to predict (interpolate) the indicator value for unsampled areas based on data from sampled data locations. DHS creates standardized modeled map surfaces using DHS survey data along with global covariate datasets. Currently, sets of standard surfaces are available for 16 surveys. Spatial data packages and stand-alone maps are available for download through The DHS Program’s Spatial Data Repository.

How can modeled map surfaces be used?

These new spatially modeled surfaces can help in several ways to improve decision making for many development sectors that include health, population, nutrition, and water and sanitation programs on multiple levels. Users can combine the maps with other resources to support:

  1. Monitoring and evaluation: analysis and evaluation of past initiatives (impact analysis) or understanding existing situations
  2. Program planning: future planning of appropriate programs and policies

Data in the modeled surfaces can be used to evaluate past programs or to better understand existing situations. Such evaluations can help to understand deviations from the norm, attribute cause, or to contribute to impact evaluations, which analyze what would have happened to the population of an area if a program had not been implemented.

Program managers can also use modeled surfaces to plan, target, and develop interventions and programs that aim to improve situations in targeted geographic areas. Interventions can be targeted more precisely, saving money, time, and human resources in the search for the most effective outcomes.

The matrix below shows potential approaches for monitoring and evaluating past and planning future programs using modeled surfaces.

This matrix is by no means comprehensive, and it is expected that map users will come up with many more potential uses after analyzing their particular situation and maps for their country.

To read more, please see the Spatial Analysis Report 14, “Guidance for Use of The DHS Program Modeled Map Surfaces.” The report delivers more in-depth information on what modeled surfaces The DHS Program is creating, as well as an explanation of their creation process. In addition, the report provides guidance on limitations and assumptions.

The DHS Program is looking forward to seeing how groups will use this new data product to enhance their activities. There is enormous potential for innovative uses of these modeled surfaces beyond those discussed in the report. Users are encouraged to submit ideas and case studies to The DHS Program (spatialdata@dhsprogram.com) as only a large community of users who share their experiences will fully expose the maps’ potential.


Aileen Marshall is the Knowledge Management/Monitoring & Evaluation Specialist at The DHS Program. She is responsible for planning, development, implementation and evaluation of the KM strategy, KM activities as well as the project-wide SharePoint site. Additionally, she is involved in measuring and evaluating capacity strengthening activities at DHS and works closely with all teams to ensure knowledge at DHS is captured, stored and shared efficiently among staff. Aileen holds an MA in English Linguistics from the Westfaelische Wilhelms-University in Muenster, Germany, and an MLIS from the University of South Carolina.

Trinadh Dontamsetti is the Health Geographic Analyst for The DHS Program. He contributes to geospatial analysis, mapmaking, and geographic data processing activities. His research interests include geospatial interpolation, tuberculosis, and vector arthropod-borne diseases.

 

Clara R. Burgert is the GIS Coordinator for The DHS Program. She oversees all  geographic data, mapping, and geospatial analysis activities at The DHS Program.  Additionally, she facilitates workshops in partner countries on using maps for better decision making using open source GIS software.

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02 Nov

Enfin, STATcompiler et l’Appli Mobile du DHS Program disponibles en français

L’attente est finie! Le STATcompiler et l’Appli Mobile du DHS Program sont désormais disponibles en français.  Saviez-vous que 30 % des enquêtes du DHS Program sont réalisées dans pays francophones ? Notre objectif est d’augmenter l’utilisation de nos données par nos collègues francophones.  Ces deux outils placent plus de 250 enquêtes de 90+ pays au bout de vos doigts et ils satisferont vos besoins des données démographiques et de santé numériques.

Le STATcompiler permet aux utilisateurs de créer des tableaux personnalisés et visualiser les données avec des histogrammes, graphiques linéaires, et cartes thématiques. Arrivé à la page d’accueil de STATcompiler, les utilisateurs peuvent choisir leur langue préférée: Page d'accueilfrançais ou anglais. Si vous êtes en milieu francophone, les paramètres de STATcompiler choisiront automatiquement le français comme la langue de défaut, ainsi que l’anglais pour ceux en milieu anglophone. N’inquiétez pas, vous pouvez toujours changer la langue en sélectionnant  « English » ou « Français »  comme le graphique à gauche indique.

 

Commencer en choisissant les indicateurs et les pays qui vous intéressent. Un tableau sera produit avec les données que vous avez choisies.

Tableau et indicateur

 Après, visualiser ces données avec des histogrammes, graphiques linéaires, et cartes thématiques. Voilà, une carte des ménages qui disposent d’électricité.

Carte

L’Appli Mobile présente 125 indicateurs pour toutes les enquêtes du DHS Program, y compris la désagrégation par des caractéristiques sociodémographiques, telles que régions infranationales, niveau d’instruction et quintiles de bien-être économique. L’Appli Mobile permet aux utilisateurs à explorer par pays ou par indicateur pour voir les tendances et les comparaisons entre les pays. Vous trouvez-vous loin d’une connection d’internet? L’appli est aussi disponible pour l’accès en mode déconnectée.

appli3

promptLes utilisateurs actuels de l’Appli seront avertis par un message sur l’écran d’accueil de l’appli qui indique qu’elle est maintenant disponible en français et fournit des instructions pour comment changer les paramètres des langues. Pour les nouveaux utilisateurs, l’Appli ouvrira la premère fois selon les paramètres de langue de l’appareil. Les utilisateurs anglophone pourront tous basculer facilement entre les deux langues dans les paramètres de l’Appli.

Télécharger l’Appli Mobile gratuitement pour les appareils Android et iOs.

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05 Oct

Social Good Summit 2016: How DHS data can help measure progress towards meeting the Global Goals

We were fortunate to have attended the UN Foundation’s Social Good Summit again which, through a variety of vibrant speakers from US UN Ambassador Samantha Power to actor and activist Alec Baldwin, emphasized the recently-adopted 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), also known as the Global Goals.

While we thoroughly enjoyed all of the sessions and speakers, we were particularly moved listening to Joyce Banda on challenges for women in public office, advocates from the Malala Fund inspiring conversation about the importance of education for girls and refugees, and Memory Banda describing life for girls in Malawi and taking a stand against child marriage.

At this year’s summit, it was again made clear that the collection of quality data is vital. Data will measure progress towards the SDGs. As DHS data supported collection and reporting of data for the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), it is expected to contribute to the measurement of as many as 13 of the 17 SDGs.

Since 2013, before the SDGs were officially determined and announced, The DHS Program was involved in dozens of meetings to determine the feasibility of collecting data required to measure SDG indicators in DHS surveys. After careful review of all 230 SDG indicators, we highlighted 86 that are population-based and feasible through household or facility surveys.  Of these, we have classified 32 that are already in our questionnaires and modules, and 20 that require minor additions or changes to questions and reporting. Below are just a few examples:

Goal 3: Proportion of women age 15-49 who have their need for family planning satisfied with modern methods. Learn more>>

Goal 5: Proportion of women age 15-49 who make their own informed decisions regarding sexual relations, contraceptive use, and reproductive health care. Learn more>>

Goal 6: Proportion of population using safely managed drinking water services. Learn more>>

Goal 7: Proportion of population with access to electricity. Learn more>>

Goal 16: Proportion of children under 5 whose births have been registered with a civil authority, by age. Learn more>>

By the time the next summit rolls around, we hope to have integrated those indicators that are feasible and practical for collection in a DHS survey into all DHS tools. In the meantime, you can watch the 2016 Social Good Summit live stream and check out what we were saying during the summit.

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31 Aug

2014 Lesotho DHS Shows Great Improvements, but Focus on HIV Remains

Many DHS surveys include HIV testing. In some countries, the resulting HIV prevalence data prove to be a distraction; there is more attention on an unchanged 1% HIV prevalence rate than on the tremendous malaria burden or a high child mortality rate. The 2014 Lesotho DHS (LDHS), however, is a very different case. While the 2014 LDHS highlights the country’s great progress in health facility births, family planning use, and child survival, HIV prevalence among adults age 15-49 is a staggering 25%. Not surprisingly, this was the only topic that received any press coverage following the June 15, 2016, LDHS national seminar.

Many Basotho, including those representing the Ministry of Health and agencies that provide HIV-related funding and program assistance, had been hoping to see a decline in HIV prevalence relative to 2009, the last time for which a national HIV prevalence estimate had been released. However, the 2014 data indicate that nationally, the prevalence has remained stable, while among women it has increased from 27% in 2009 to 30% in 2014.

Some stakeholders saw optimism in these figures:  a higher HIV prevalence may be the result of more HIV-positive women receiving anti-retroviral (ARV) therapy, and thereby surviving much longer than they would have without ARVs.  But of course, higher prevalence can also be due to more new infections. The LDHS also tested blood samples for HIV incidence, and these data were published as part of the Final Report for the first time ever in a DHS survey. The 2014 LDHS reports an HIV incidence rate of 1.9 new infections for every 100 person-years of exposure. In other words, for every 100 people, there is an average of 1.9 new infections per year. Despite prevention efforts, new infections are indeed entering the population.

There is still good news in the HIV community in Lesotho. Voluntary testing programs are far-reaching:  more than 80% of women and 60% of men in Lesotho have ever tested for HIV and received the results, up from 66% of women and 37% of men in 2009. Eighty percent of women who gave birth in the two years before the survey received HIV counseling during antenatal care, and 79% also were tested for HIV and received the results.

The positive effects of voluntary medical male circumcision are also demonstrated by the 2014 LDHS data:  only 14% of men who were medically circumcised tested positive for HIV compared to 21% among those were not circumcised or were traditionally circumcised only.

The 2014 LDHS has 17 chapters.  Only 2 of them are about HIV. And yet, it’s very hard to get attention on child mortality, nutrition, gender issues, or family planning when 25% of the adult population has HIV. And HIV does not exist in a vacuum; it affects the health of this country in many indirect ways as well. Child mortality is affected by children’s HIV status, as well as the status of their parents; HIV prevention behaviors must be considered within the lens of gender issues; and family planning cannot be separated from HIV education.

So despite the progress made in maternal and child health, the headlines are fair:  HIV is the predominant health concern in Lesotho. Continued development in all sectors of Lesotho is contingent upon the management of the HIV crisis. But if the reaction to the 2014 LDHS is any indication, stakeholders in Lesotho are poised to make data-driven decisions and to further mobilize resources to change the course of health in Lesotho.

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29 Jun

Strengthening Afghanistan’s Health Sector: Evidence from the 2015 Afghanistan DHS

Dr. Ferozuddin Feroz (left), Sayed Alam Shinwari, Micheal Kugelman, and Larry Sample at The Wilson Center's Event, "A Good Diagnosis for Afghanistan: Strengthening the Health Sector"

Dr. Ferozuddin Feroz (left), Sayed Alam Shinwari, Michael Kugelman, and Larry Sampler at The Wilson Center’s Event, “A Good Diagnosis for Afghanistan: Strengthening the Health Sector”

Working in collaboration, two Afghan government organizations– the Central Statistics Organization and the Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) – conducted Afghanistan’s first Demographic and Health Survey (AfDHS). “This in itself is an enormous milestone,” said Larry Sampler, Assistant to the Administrator for the Office of Afghanistan and Pakistan Affairs at USAID during a panel discussion at the Wilson Center, “A Good Diagnosis for Afghanistan: Strengthening the Health Sector.” Sampler, joined by the Afghanistan Minister of Public Health, Dr. Ferozuddin Feroz; Sayed Alam Shinwari, President of the Afghan Medical Professionals Association of America; and Michael Kugelman, Senior Associate for South Asia at The Wilson Center highlighted the implications of the Afghan government’s efforts to improve maternal and child health as demonstrated in the newly released 2015 AfDHS Key Indicators Report (KIR).

AfDHS-KIROf particular interest to both the MOPH and USAID, AfDHS results show progress in reducing childhood mortalityCurrently, about 1 in 20 children does not survive until their 5th birthday in Afghanistan. The majority of these childhood deaths occur during the first year of life. Compared to earlier time periods, both infant and under-five mortality have declined, suggesting that child health interventions are making a difference. Dr. Feroz explains, “The DHS survey shows that there is substantial improvement in maternal health and child health. This progress has been made through high-level commitments, a productive work environment with development partners as well as non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and local NGOs, scaling up of cost effective and lifesaving interventions across the country, training of midwives, as well as attention to equity and those living in remote areas.”

“The DHS survey demonstrates how far the Afghan public health sector has come and also how far it has to go,” stated Larry Sampler. What are the challenges of Afghanistan’s health sector? “Afghanistan still faces instability and insecurity, poverty, unemployment, the few number of midwives or health staff across the country,” explains Dr. Feroz. But in spite of these challenges, the Afghan MOPH is developing a national strategy for the next five years. “We will use this recent survey as a baseline to measure progress – to increase access to remote areas, improve the quality of services, introduce cost-effective interventions, and focus on equity issues.”

Dr. Fred Arnold of The DHS Program with Dr. Ferozuddin Feroz, Afghanistan Minister of Public Health

Dr. Fred Arnold (left)  of The DHS Program with Dr. Ferozuddin Feroz, Afghanistan Minister of Public Health

The survey covered topics including fertility and family planning, maternal and child health, childhood and maternal mortality, nutrition, malaria, HIV knowledge, and other health issues. The KIR is a short report of key indicators from the 2015 AfDHS that is meant to provide important data in a timely fashion to program managers and policy makers. Additional indicators such as the maternal mortality ratio will be included in the AfDHS Final Report, scheduled for release in late 2016.

To learn more about the Woodrow Wilson Center’s event, watch “A Good Diagnosis for Afghanistan: Strengthening the Health Sector” or visit the Wilson Center’s website.

The 2015 Afghanistan Demographic and Health Survey (2015 AfDHS) was implemented by the Central Statistics Organization and the Ministry of Public Health from June 15, 2015, to February 23, 2016. The funding for the AfDHS was provided by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). ICF International provided technical assistance through The DHS Program, a USAID-funded project providing support and technical assistance in the implementation of population and health surveys in countries worldwide.

18 May

Building Awareness of the Link between Fistula and Gender-Based Violence

Genital fistula, an abnormal hole between the vagina and rectum or bladder that causes urinary or fecal incontinence, is a devastating, preventable condition that no woman should have to endure. It usually results from inadequately managed, prolonged or obstructed labor, surgical error, or trauma [1, 2].  Although rare, it can be completely debilitating—physically, socially, and economically—particularly to women who live in remote areas without access to treatment; women with fistula are often shunned from the household or society, which can cause immense suffering  [3].

While sexual violence can cause traumatic fistula, the vulnerable state of women with fistula gives reason to suspect that the risk of violence could also increase after the onset of fistula [4, 5, 6], though no studies have attempted to evaluate this to date.  Moreover, because it is so rare, it is difficult to capture statistically significant associations with the condition.

The DHS Program provides an opportunity to study such rare events because of the inclusion of standardized questions in numerous, nationally-representative  surveys with large sample sizes. In a study conducted to further examine the relationship between fistula and violence, data were pooled from 12 DHS surveys, 11 conducted in Sub-Saharan African countries and one in Haiti, where standardized modules (sets of questions) on the two topics were included.

In total, 90,276 women were included in the analysis.  Among these women, the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of fistula ranged from 0.4% to 2.0%.  Regression analyses confirmed an association with sexual violence: women who have experienced sexual violence, both ever as well as within the 12 months preceding the survey, have almost twice the odds of reporting symptoms of fistula. Although there are no questions posed on timing of onset of symptoms of fistula in the DHS, the association with lifetime as well as recent experience of sexual violence suggests that violence could occur both before as well as after fistula’s onset.

One other finding of interest was that women whose first experience of sexual violence was committed by a non-partner had over four times the odds of reporting symptoms of fistula than women who did not report sexual violence.  Although inferences from these findings can only be made with caution, the temporality relationship between fistula and sexual violence deserves further investigation.

In light of International Day to End Fistula on May 23, it is imperative to continue to work towards minimizing occurrence of fistula by building awareness around conditions that contribute to and result from this morbidity. This study shows yet another disheartening correlation between gender-based violence and poor health outcomes for women. It provides even more impetus for training and sensitivity for women’s health care providers in this area.

full studyA poster presentation of the study was exhibited at the 2016 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (PAA) in Washington DC. More information can be found in this poster.

 

 

 


  1. Longombe AO, Claude KM, Ruminjo J. Fistula and traumatic genital injury from sexual violence in a conflict setting in Eastern Congo: case studies. Reprod Health Matters. 2008 May;16(31):132-41
  2. Raassen TJ, Ngongo CJ, Mahendeka MM. Iatrogenic genitourinary fistula: an 18-year retrospective review of 805 injuries. Int Urogynecol J. 2014 Dec;25(12):1699-706.
  3. Baloch, B.A., A. Salam, D. ZaibUnnisa, and H. Nawaz. 2014. Vesico-Vaginal Fistulae. The Professional Medical Journal, 21(5), 851-855.
  4. ACQUIRE. 2006. Traumatic gynecologic fistula: A Consequence of Sexual Violence in Conflict Settings. A report of a meeting held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, September 6-8, 2005. New York, The ACQUIRE Project/EngenderHealth.
  5. Peterman A, Johnson K. Incontinence and trauma: sexual violence, female genital cutting and proxy measures of gynecological fistula. Soc Sci Med. 2009 Mar;68(5):971-9.
  6. Naved RT, Blum LS, Chowdhury S, Khan R, Bilkis S, Koblinsky M. Violence against women with chronic maternal disabilities in rural Bangladesh. J Health Popul Nutr. 2012 Jun;30(2):181-92.

 

The information provided on this Web site is not official U.S. Government information and does not represent the views or positions of the U.S. Agency for International Development or the U.S. Government.

The DHS Program, ICF
530 Gaither Road, Suite 500, Rockville, MD 20850
Tel: +1 (301) 407-6500 • Fax: +1 (301) 407-6501
dhsprogram.com